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Research Terms of Reference: CCCM Detailed Site Assessment, SOM1909, Somalia (December 2019, Version 1)

2. Rationale

2.1. Rationale

Context: The humanitarian crisis in Somalia is among the most complex and long-standing in the world. Armed conflict and widespread violence, as well as recurrent climatic shocks, perpetuate high levels of humanitarian needs and protection concerns. While above-average rains in the first part of 2018 improved food security, the humanitarian situation remains fragile and prone to future climatic shocks. In total, an estimated 4.2 million people, one-third of the total population in Somalia, require humanitarian assistance and protection.

The 6th round of the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) estimated that 2 million people in the 58 assessed districts in Somalia have been displaced, a majority of which are children (under 18 years) and women. In search for food supplies, income sources and humanitarian assistance, displaced populations have been moving towards urban areas where new IDP settlements are established with additional strain being placed on existing IDP settlements and service provision. Moreover, the IDP settlements in Somalia are mostly temporary, adding a layer of complexity for service provision. In contrast to other countries where IDP settlements are in designated locations for long periods of time, most of the IDP settlements in Somalia are spontaneous and do not last. This is due to different factors acting together such as lack of written tenure agreements, forced evictions, and disputes over land. An IDP settlement identified in a certain area may not be located at the same area within a few months. It could have been moved further, completely disappeared or have been divided into different locations. On August 2018, close to 200,000 forced evictions were registered by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC).

In May 2017, the CCCM cluster was activated, under the co-leadership of UNHCR and IOM, partly as a result of the lack of coordination amongst humanitarian actors and the need for an integrated multi-sectorial response in regards to IDP settlements in Somalia. The purpose of the CCCM has also been to raise the quality of interventions and monitoring of humanitarian services in communal settings.

Key information gaps: The previous round of the Detailed Site Assessment (DSA) took place from September 2018 to January 2019 assessing a total of 1,603 IDP settlements in 56 districts across Somalia with the objective of providing up-to-date IDP population estimates and an understanding of humanitarian needs of these IDP settlements. As the causes of displacement, natural disaster and conflict, still persist, the number of IDPs continue to grow. Increased migration towards urban areas has resulted in high numbers of forced evictions. This continued displacement has resulted in increasingly fluctuating population estimates at informal and planned settlements complicating the ability of the humanitarian response to provide basic services to address the needs of IDP populations. The next round of the DSA aims to use an updated joint methodology and tool to further improve on the information provided by the DSA on the location, estimated size of population, and humanitarian needs of IDPs residing in IDP settlements (informal and planned) in urban / semi-urban areas.

Programme purpose and institutional framework: The CCCM Cluster is to collect multi cluster settlement level information to inform the overall humanitarian response in IDP settlements and improve the living conditions of residents residing in these IDP settlements.

o REACH is providing Information Management (IM) support and capacity building for the CCCM cluster while training partners on data collection methodologies to ensure coherent approaches to cluster assessments.

o Quartely site monitoring undertaken by the CCCM cluster will include the DSA questionnaire to enhance collaboration and avoid duplication of efforts.

REACH's involvement:

o Produce training materials for enumerators and Training of Trainers (ToT) for partner staff

o Develop tools for KII settlement assessments

o Conduct the data collection in areas of access for REACH Field Officers (FOs)

o Provide clean data of all sites

o Analyse data and produce factsheets at the district level and national level

Source: REACH Initiative