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Heads of Peacekeeping, Field Support Departments Call for Multidimensional Approaches to Sustainable Peace, as Fourth Committee Begins Annual Review

Most Delegates Applaud Secretary-General's Initiative to Refocus on Realistic Expectations, as Some Stress Charter Principles

Highlighting the Secretary-General's Action for Peacekeeping initiative, senior United Nations officials called today for multidimensional approaches to sustainable peace, as the Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) today began its annual review of all aspects of peacekeeping operations.

Peacekeepers are no longer shielded by the United Nations flag; instead far too many are being laid to rest beneath it, observed Jean-Pierre Lacroix, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, noting that the Secretariat has developed an action plan involving the strengthening of operational readiness, providing better tailored training and ensuring that peacekeepers have the required equipment.

Moreover, the Secretary-General's Action for Peacekeeping initiative aims to refocus peacekeeping on realistic expectations, he said. It also seeks to enhance the political impact of peacekeeping, he added, recalling that eight independent, externally-led reviews of peacekeeping missions have been conducted since late 2017. Their findings conclude that there is no silver bullet to ensure success in peacekeeping and that political will and support are vital to unlocking blockages. Performance in dangerous operating environments, however, requires more than optimal training and hardware, he pointed out, noting that the Department is also strengthening mission leadership and developing a framework for responsible use and management of peacekeeping intelligence.

He went on to cite the Department's partnership with the African Union, an organization with which it has conducted joint field visits to the Central African Republic, Sudan and South Sudan to coordinate collective efforts in those countries. He also outlined the Department's efforts to strengthen the African Union's compliance frameworks in priority areas and its advocacy of sustainable, predictable and flexible funding for the regional bloc's peace operations.

Also highlighting that partnership was Atul Khare, Under-Secretary General for Field Support, who reported that his Department has implemented a related two-year pilot programme. Stressing the increasing importance of effective African capacities, he called upon Member States to establish a mechanism through which African Union-led peace support operations can be partly financed through United Nations assessed contributions.

Turning to the Secretary-General's Action for Peacekeeping Declaration, he observed: We are not measured solely by our actions while we are deployed, but also by the condition of the country when we leave. Noting that mission closures are anticipated in Haiti and Darfur, Sudan, he called upon Member States to support the attendant transitions, particularly through United Nations country teams.

Also addressing the question of transitions, Morocco's representative, speaking for the Non-Aligned Movement, said exit strategies should be agreed in the early stages of mission planning. Moreover, achievable mandates supported by appropriate resources and consultations with troop- and police-contributing countries as well as host States are crucial, he said, warning against changing mandated mission tasks without prior consultations with those relevant parties.

Similarly, Mexico's representative said that transition and downsizing operations should be considered early in the mission planning process. In that regard, she called for better coordination and more timely exchanges of information between the Secretariat and parties on the ground in host countries.

Also speaking today were representatives of El Salvador (for the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States), Jamaica (for the Caribbean Community), Indonesia (also for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations), Canada (also for Australia and New Zealand), Guatemala, Switzerland, Philippines, Thailand, Kenya, South Africa and India.

An observer for the European Union delegation also addressed the Committee.

The Fourth Committee will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Wednesday, 31 October, to continue its general debate on the comprehensive review of the whole question of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects.

Introductory Statements

JEAN PIERRE LACROIX, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, said that the Secretary-General's reform agenda will foster an environment in which peacekeeping operations can succeed. Restructuring of the peace and security architecture will help his Department devise responses based on more integrated and regional analysis and enable more strategic responses blending conflict prevention, crisis management and peacebuilding. Noting that the problems peacekeepers face are exacerbated by the changing nature of conflicts, with weak governance and security-driven responses often feeding the cycle of violence, he said longer-running conflicts mean that sustainable peace depends on tackling them in a multidimensional way. Peacekeepers are no longer shielded by the United Nations flag; instead far too many are being laid to rest beneath it, he pointed out.

The Secretary-General's Action for Peacekeeping initiative aims to refocus peacekeeping with realistic expectations, he continued, adding that its other goals include making missions stronger and safer, and mobilizing greater support for political solutions and for well-structured, well-equipped and well-trained forces. The initiative has demonstrated the overwhelming political support that peacekeeping enjoys, and a positive assertion of multilateralism and of the valued role of peacekeeping in international affairs. As for the Action for Peacekeeping Declaration, he said it represents a new agenda designed to maximize the ability of peacekeeping operations to contribute to peace with clear commitments against which progress can be measured, adding that its commitments are respective and mutual, shared between the Secretariat and Member States. Now all organs involved in peacekeeping must translate the political momentum into action, he emphasized.

He went on to state that the Action for Peacekeeping initiative also seeks to enhance the political impact of peacekeeping, recalling that eight independent, externally-led reviews of peacekeeping missions have been conducted since late 2017 to assess peacekeeping mandates. Their findings conclude that there is no silver bullet to ensure peacekeeping success and that political will and support are vital to unlocking blockages, he said, stressing, however, that they find intrinsic value in the presence and capacity of peacekeepers to prevent, manage and contain violence. Moving forward, the Department will continue to develop commonly-agreed political roadmaps for multidimensional settings, strengthen information gathering, management and analysis within the new peace and security pillar, he said. Calling on Member States to run through the findings of each independent review and address the gap between mandate and resources, he stressed that policies must be aligned with Security Council resolutions in order to foster triangular consultations.

Turning to the safety and security of peacekeepers, he declared: The death of even one peacekeeper is far too many, and the current situation is simply unacceptable. In that context, the Secretariat has developed an Action Plan, he said, adding that its implementation involves strengthening operational readiness, providing better tailored training and ensuring that peacekeepers have the required equipment. To spearhead implementation, the Department has established an interdisciplinary implementation support team, mirrored in the five peacekeeping missions with the highest fatality rates since 2013. Moreover, the Department is pursuing triangular initiatives to build capacity with troop- and police-contributing countries, including through the light coordination mechanism. Performance in dangerous operating environments, however, requires more than optimal training and hardware, he pointed out, noting that the Department is also strengthening mission leadership and developing a framework for responsible use and management of peacekeeping intelligence.

He went on to report that the Department has scaled up efforts to systematically assess performance, having begun instituting an integrated performance policy framework requested by the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations and the Security Council. In parallel, it will continue to evaluate uniformed personnel through performance standards and predeployment evaluations, integrated performance assessments and independent investigations. He encouraged all Member States with the capacity to provide training and equipment to step up their efforts to respond to current needs, requesting that they provide voluntary contributions for the Department's training plan. He also called upon all Member States, particularly those with the most advanced military capabilities, to contribute more troops and police to peacekeeping, outlining in that context specific ongoing needs, such as helicopters and rapid-reaction forces.

The Secretariat will continue to strengthen partnerships with key regional organizations, based on the principles of complementarity, comparative advantage, burden-sharing and collective responsibility, he continued. In that regard, he cited the Department's partnership with the African Union, with which it has conducted joint field visits to the Central African Republic, Sudan and South Sudan to coordinate collective efforts in those countries. He also cited the Department's efforts to strengthen the African Union's compliance frameworks in priority areas and its advocacy of sustainable, predictable and flexible funding for the regional bloc's peace operations. Moreover, the Department will strengthen and enhance triangular efforts to build capacity for the bloc's operations, and to deepen partnerships in the field.

Turning to women, peace and security, he recalled the joint mission that he undertook to Sudan with the African Union and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN-Women), saying that during the visit, they reiterated their support for an inclusive peace process that honours commitments to women's participation and enables a more protective environment for women. However, women represent only 21 per cent of the Department's civilian and uniformed personnel, he noted, stressing: We must do better, particularly because more female peacekeepers results in more effective peacekeeping operations. To that end, the Secretariat is redoubling its efforts to increase the number of women in key positions, he said, pointing out that, at Headquarters, 18 per cent of all officers in the Office of Military Affairs are now women, and the Department is committed to raising that proportion further. In that regard, Member States can also lead by example by encouraging women's participation in peacekeeping within national contingents and promoting women to leadership positions, he said.

ATUL KHARE, Under Secretary General for Field Support, described ongoing efforts with respect to the Secretary-General's management reforms, highlighting in particular the reorganization of responsibilities and resourcing from the existing Departments of Management and Field Support to the new Department of Management Strategy, Policy and Compliance and the new Department of Operational Support. The reorganization will help to shift the focus from process to results, eliminate duplicative functions, establish a clearer division of roles and responsibilities, and ensure checks and balances, he said, adding that a new Special Activities Division will focus on the sensitive needs of surge, transition and downsizing missions, and contain the capacity for analysis as well as operational and resource planning. Moreover, a close relationship with the new Department of Peace Operations will ensure a common approach to knowledge management, guidance and training for all personnel serving in peace operations, including those in leadership positions, he noted.

Turning to the Secretary-General's Action for Peacekeeping Declaration, he observed: We are not measured solely by our actions while we are deployed, but also by the condition of the country when we leave. Citing the anticipated closure of missions in Haiti and Darfur, he called upon Member States to support transitions, particularly through United Nations country teams. That support should also extend to ensuring sufficient resources for responsible environmental management as missions draw down. He went on to emphasize also that civilian and uniformed peacekeepers must be held accountable for effective performance under common parameters, pointing out that his Department is making strong efforts in that regard, including by reviewing missions and drawing on performance data, and by improving medical care. In 2017, the Department introduced a new performance management framework for field support, he recalled, adding that it seeks to increase transparency, comparability and accountability for all missions by laying out 12 standard indicators in nine service areas.

He went on to describe peacekeeping partnerships, noting that, at the African Union's request, the Department has implemented a two-year pilot programme to enhance cooperation in matters of support for peace operations. Stressing the increasing importance of effective African capacities, both for stability on the continent and collective security, he called upon Member States to establish a mechanism through which African Union-led peace support operations can be partly financed through United Nations assessed contributions, as per the reference in Security Council resolution 2378 (2017). Moreover, under the Triangular Partnership Project, the Department has made notable progress in enhancing women's participation in peacekeeping, and strengthening the capacities of uniformed peacekeepers in engineering, signals as well as command-and-control communications. It is also taking concrete measures to expand such arrangements to include new geographic areas and additional enabling capacities, he said.

General Discussion

OMAR HILALE (Morocco), speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said that successful implementation of the Action for Peacekeeping initiative depends on the engagement of all stakeholders. He said performance is a key element of peacekeeping, adding that for any performance system to be efficient, discrepancies such as caveats or the size and nature of the participation must be taken into account. Emphasizing the importance of consensus among Member States on policy development, he called upon the Secretariat to refrain from implementing policy that has not been agreed through an intergovernmental process, pointing out that the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations is the only United Nations forum mandated to review the whole question of peacekeeping operations. The establishment of any peacekeeping operation, or extension of its mandate, should strictly uphold the principles of the United Nations Charter, he stressed, citing sovereign equality, political independence and territorial integrity. Achievable mandates with appropriate resources and consultations with troop- and police-contributing countries and host States are crucial, he said, warning against changes in mandated mission tasks without prior consultations with the relevant parties.

Requesting that the Secretariat regularly update training materials provided to police- and troop-contributing countries, he said adequate training will improve the safety of peacekeeping personnel, adding that effective triangular cooperation involving troop-contributing countries, the Secretariat and the Security Council will make operations more effective. He went on to stress that the increased number of sexual exploitation and abuse allegations against civilian peacekeeping personnel calls for equal accountability measures for all staff, calling also for better coordination between peacekeeping police and other mission components. Peacekeeping efforts must be accompanied by economic recovery efforts, he said, expressing support for the work of the Peacebuilding Commission and the Peacebuilding Fund. Underlining that peacekeeping is not an alternative to addressing the root causes of conflicts, he said exit strategies should be agreed in the early stages of mission planning. There is need for further consultations with Member States on the use of force and on ways to protect peacekeeping personnel, he said. The United Nations must intensify its support for the African Union's operations, he added.

RUBA�N ARMANDO ESCALANTE HASBASN (El Salvador), speaking on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), noted that the peace and security reforms proposed by the Secretary-General do not seek to change established mandates, functions or funding sources, adding that, in order to be truly effective, peacekeeping operations should enjoy political support, sufficient resources and clearly defined and viable mandates. Expressing concern over the highly fragile political and security environments in areas where peacekeeping missions operate, he said that such operations should always be accompanied by a well-planned, carefully designed, parallel and inclusive peace process supported by the consent of the parties concerned. Clear exit strategies are essential, he said, emphasizing the need to assess the timing of transitions and to consider that peacekeeping operations represent a temporary measure.

He went on to reiterate CELAC's commitment to helping Haiti move along the path of stability, peace and sustainable development with the support of the United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH). CELAC appreciates the Mission's personnel and recognizes the regional countries with troops deployed in Haiti for 14 years, he added. Reiterating the link between peace and development, he highlighted the importance of strengthening coordination between United Nations peacekeeping operations and the Organization's peacebuilding architecture. Observing that primary responsibility for protecting civilians rests with host countries, he emphasized that the legitimate need to protect civilians must not be used to override the principle of State sovereignty. Underscoring the importance of consultative meetings with troop- and police-contributing countries, he reiterated CELAC's request that the Security Council improve the existing process, while underlining that reimbursements to those countries must be carried out in a timely and efficient manner.

E. COURTENAY RATTRAY (Jamaica), speaking on behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), expressed support for extending MINUJUSTH's mandate until 15 April. He also expressed appreciation for efforts to responsibly articulate an exit strategy to support the Mission's transition to a non-peacekeeping United Nations presence beginning in October 2019. Taking note of the 11 benchmarks and 46 indicators outlined in the Secretary-General's recent report on MINUJUSTH, he said that meeting those targets will prove essential to consolidating security gains and establishing a strong foundation for Haiti's long-term political stability, security and development. Recalling the assistance provided in terms of the United Nations Haiti Cholera Response Multi-Partner Trust Fund, he expressed concern that present contributions to the Fund are severely insufficient, and called for predictable international funding to help victims and their families.

He went on to express CARICOM's support for the active participation of women in preventing and resolving conflict as well as in peacekeeping, peacebuilding and all efforts to promote international peace and security. CARICOM also encourages the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to increase the number of female officers in peacekeeping missions, adding that Member States must similarly continue efforts to deploy female peacekeepers, particularly at senior levels. Meaningful participation of women in peacekeeping goes beyond statistics, he noted, calling for their participation in negotiations and for the full reflection of their interests and lived experiences in peace processes. He also highlighted the need for consistent, transparent and effective triangular cooperation among the Security Council, the Secretariat and troop- and police-contributing countries. Moreover, reimbursements to those countries must be carried out in a timely and efficient manner that incentivizes their diverse and sustained participation, he stressed.

DIAN TRIANSYAH DJANI (Indonesia), speaking on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), he said peacekeeping reforms should enhance performance and capabilities as well as improve, expedite and ensure good decision-making processes in field missions. They should also enhance peacekeeping's political impact and strengthen its protection aspect, including by increasing the participation of women peacekeepers. Reforms should ensure the safety of United Nations peacekeepers, while improving the impact of peacekeeping on sustaining peace, strengthening partnerships and improving the skills and conduct of peacekeepers, he said.

The successful conclusion of a peacekeeping mission demands adequate resourcing to carry out its mandates, he continued, while emphasizing that the most important aspect of the reforms will be translating commitments into action. Pointing to the continued strengthening of ASEAN-United Nations collaboration in peacekeeping, he said their cooperation covers activities ranging from national focal points through the ASEAN Peacekeeping Centres Network. More than 4,500 police, military advisers and troops from ASEAN countries are currently contributing to 12 peacekeeping missions, he said, emphasizing that the regional bloc is committed to increasing its contribution to the meaningful participation of women in peacekeeping. Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam are working closely with the Secretariat to deploy specialized contingents based on the new force generation model, he added.

Speaking in his national capacity, he said the success of peacekeeping will depend on collective willingness to improve mandates. Additionally, necessary capabilities must be deployed so peacekeepers can protect themselves and the local population, he said, also expressing appreciation for the Secretary-General's commitment to develop an integrated performance policy framework based on common parameters.

RICHARD ARBEITER (Canada), speaking also on behalf of Australia and New Zealand, said 71 United Nations peacekeepers died in 2017, noting that new technologies and modern operational practices would increase the safety and security of those serving in peace operations. Full implementation of the peacekeeping intelligence policy framework should be a high priority for the Secretariat. He said the effectiveness of pooling resources and critical capabilities has been proven by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and should be an example for future planning. Member States must ensure that troops and police are not only adequately trained and equipped, but also willing and able to implement mandates, he said, underlining that clear, prioritized and achievable mandates must be matched by appropriate resources and clear exit strategies alongside political solutions and peacebuilding strategies.

Improving the effectiveness of United Nations peace operations is not only about the right number of troops and assets, but also about reassessing how peacekeepers interact with the communities they protect, he continued. In that regard, including women in peacekeeping missions is both the right and the smart thing to do. This is not about political correctness or virtue-signalling, he said. This is about a real solution to hard security problems. When women are present and gender perspectives integrated, peacekeeping missions are more likely to succeed. On sexual exploitation and abuse, he said collective efforts to implement the victim-centred strategy outlined in the Secretary-General's report on special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and abuse must span the entire United Nations system. Victims must be able to access an integrated and responsive system that treats them with dignity, investigates claims and offers a path to justice and restitution, he stressed.

JORGE SKINNER-KLEA� ARENALES (Guatemala), associating himself with CELAC and the Non-Aligned Movement, said peacekeeping success depends on collective stakeholder commitment. Peacebuilding, the rule of law and human rights are also necessary for successful peace operations, he said, also emphasizing the importance of empowering women at all stages of peace processes. Triangular cooperation involving the Secretariat, the Security Council and troop-contributing countries must be strengthened to ensure viable, clear mandates, he said, adding that civilian as well as military personnel must have the highest level of training. He expressed concern about persisting allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers. Emphasizing that peacekeeping missions are not appropriate for fighting terrorism, he said robust operations should not impose political solutions but follow the guidance of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. Noting that caveats have a negative effect on implementation of peacekeeping mandates, he reiterated Guatemala's commitment to providing the most qualified personnel.

GUILLAUME DABOUIS of the European Union said peacekeeping operations advance security and pave the way for political solutions to crises. The European Union strongly supports the Secretary-General's initiative to make United Nations programme delivery more effective, especially the Action for Peacekeeping initiative. However, the initiatives will only succeed if Member States provide them with the necessary contributions. Emphasizing that peacekeeping operations must observe the principles of the United Nations Charter, he stressed the paramount importance of resolving conflicts through political solutions that prioritize prevention and mediation. The European Union's peacekeeping and crisis management efforts are guided by eight priority areas, including strengthening implementation of the women, peace and security agenda, he stated.

Protection of civilians and the prevention of atrocities must be the common denominator of relevant peacekeeping operations' mandates, he continued, welcoming regular assessment of the political and protection effects of missions. They must effectively protect women and children in situations of armed conflict, he noted, voicing his country's commitment to doubling the number of women in military and policy peacekeeping contingents. Underlining that peacekeeping operations must have clear, coherent and achievable mandates, and the importance of local ownership as a crucial factor in protecting civilians, he said States must match political intent and operational might in order for peace operations to succeed. He underlined the importance of reducing the overall environmental footprint of United Nations peacekeeping operations and of the critical role of intelligence and information in mandate delivery.

DOMINIQUE MICHEL FAVRE (Switzerland) said a comprehensive and inclusive approach to conflict prevention is the most promising way to reduce violence, avoid relapse into armed conflict, increase community resilience and foster sustaining peace. Expressing support for the Secretary-General's efforts to address sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations civilian, police and military peacekeeping personnel, he said such actions undermine the credibility and reputation of the entire Organization. Switzerland contributes to the established Trust Fund to support victims in that context, he said, stressing that combating sexual exploitation and abuse is a foreign policy priority for his country. Emphasizing the value of the Peacebuilding Commission and its country-specific configurations, he expressed hope for a reflection of that value in upcoming discussions.

ANGELITO AYONG NAYAN (Philippines), associating himself with ASEAN, commended the launch of the Action for Peace initiative and saying his country's Government is ready to enhance its engagement in peacekeeping operations. The Philippines has never faltered in its commitment to answering United Nations calls for peace and for investing in peace, he said, adding that his country is actively engaged in regional peacekeeping efforts. The Philippines supports a review of the United Nations peacekeeping architecture and prioritizes capacity-building efforts to ensure the safety of peacekeepers, he said, reiterating his delegation's support for platforms that promote peer learning among Member States on how to build resilience in peacekeeping. He called for greater investment in political solutions to conflicts, declaring: People in conflict situations must feel that they own the peace we merely hope to bring about and keep.

CHUMPHOT NURAKKATE (Thailand), emphasizing that the ongoing reform of peacekeeping operations must be implemented in an integrated and holistic manner, said that proper planning, adequate resourcing, proper equipment and competent personnel are imperative to effectiveness and success. Moreover, each peacekeeping mandate must be achievable and realistic, context-specific and flexible. Equally important is developing appropriate approaches and methods to monitor and evaluate the outcomes of each peacekeeping mission, he said. Stressing the vital importance of preserving the principles underpinning the financing of peacekeeping operations in order to ensure financial predictability for the entire United Nations system, he said Member States must ensure that issues ranging from training, safety and security, to compensation, incentives and others are addressed and financed in a comprehensive, systematic and thorough manner.

MARA�A ANTONIETA SOCORRO JA�QUEZ HUACUJA (Mexico) said that, in adapting to new challenges of conflict management, the United Nations has created some inefficiencies. In that regard, Mexico welcomes the restructuring of the peace and security pillar, she said, calling upon the Secretariat to provide Member States with information on the results of those reforms. Peacekeeping efforts should be part of the Organization's comprehensive response, she said, describing peacekeeping operations as unique global partnerships requiring participation by all stakeholders. Peacekeeping operations are often carried out in complicated environments amid conflicts requiring multidimensional solutions, clearly defined mandates and adequate resources, she noted. Transition and downsizing operations should be considered early in the mission planning process, she added, calling also for better coordination and more timely exchanges of information between the Secretariat and parties on the ground in host countries. She went on to call for a higher percentage of female peacekeeping personnel, reporting that Mexico has broadened its participation in police and troop contributions.

LAZARUS OMBAI AMAYO (Kenya), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said the success of peacekeeping missions depends on the ability of peacekeepers to understand their environment, their mandates and the resources at their disposal. The value of partnership between the United Nations and the African Union cannot be overemphasized, he said, citing the relative peace and security in Somalia as an example of that cooperation. However, the security situation in that country and the threat of Al-Shabaab remain a concern for Kenya, he said, welcoming the mandate extension authorized for the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Although Somalia is not considered appropriate for the deployment of a peacekeeping mission, he urged the international community to exercise flexibility when considering the situation there and called for AMISOM to receive funding from assessed contributions in order to ensure predictability. The Security Council must develop context-specific mandates that permit mission leadership latitude in the execution of their tasks, he said. Turning to South Sudan, he urged a mandate review for the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), reiterating also the importance of the partnership with the African Union, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)and the Government of South Sudan.

HARSHANA GOOLAB (South Africa) said peacekeeping missions should be accompanied by a political process. Expressing support for the reform agenda's prioritizing of prevention through negotiation, dialogue and mediation, she called upon all stakeholders to support the Action for Peacekeeping Declaration. Emphasizing that performance assessment should not be a box-checking exercise, she said that it must be measured against actual deliverables and performance in response to situations on the ground. The African Union must receive sustained, predictable and flexible funding for peace operations, she said, welcoming the findings of the Secretary-General's report on the cooperation between the two organizations. Noting that police contingents play an important role in peace missions, she said the United Nations Chiefs of Police Summit provides a good platform for police-contributing countries to discuss challenges faced by their officers. Underscoring the essential need for including women in peacekeeping operations, she reported that South Africa will continue its deployments. As for sexual exploitation and abuse, South Africa is in the process of criminalizing those offences by including them in a Military Discipline Bill, she said.

SANDEEP KUMAR BAYYEPU (India), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, noted that his country's peacekeepers have been at the forefront of United Nations peacekeeping, setting high standards in their long-standing contributions to nearly 50 missions. Highlighting the impact of caveats on performance, he emphasized that they are against the basic principle of equality, place an additional burden on peacekeepers unburdened by caveats, and have a direct impact on the fulfilment of mandates. He called for eliminating all caveats. Peacekeepers must have adequate resources, he said, observing that underresourced troops are unable to accomplish their tasks, which in turn undermines the credibility of the United Nations. India is committed to sharing experiences with potential troop-contributing countries, he said, adding that co-deployment should be encouraged as an effective mechanism in that regard. On issues of conduct and discipline, he said India has contributed $300,000 to the Pipeline to Peacekeeping Command Programme, which will help to develop capacity and raise awareness of conduct standards, he noted.

Source: United Nation